In education, assessment is the counterpart of instruction and learning: it answers the question as to how far the intended results of educational efforts have been met. These results can be described and analyzed at the level of an educational program or at the level of an individual learner. In the first case the term ‘evaluation’ is normally used (i.e. ‘program evaluation’), in the second case the term ‘assessment’ in its strict sense is used (i.e. ‘student assessment’) (Eisner, 1996, pp. xii-xiii). In this chapter we concentrate on (individual) student assessment.

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 Diederik Schönau